Saturday, April 28, 2012

CONSTRAINTS TO INDIGENOUS LEAFY VEGETABLE MARKETING BY Walugembe Sebastiane SO8B26/901 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTEDTO THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEGREE OF UGANDA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY MUKONO-UGANDA April 2012 ABSTRACT In this study the main objective was to find out the major constraints that farmers who market indigenous leafy vegetables encounter a semi structured questionnaire and an interview guide were used to carry out a qualitative and survey research in Buikwe district. It was found out that the major constraints to indigenous leafy vegetable marketing are as a result of several factors which interact and cause the production and marketing rate to be low these included change in season, unfriendly weather, stiff competition, and, reduced soil fertility. The research helped identify the importance of indigenous leafy vegetables to family livelihood. If the challenges are critically addressed timely, vast benefits shall be recognized, through encouraging the farmers to work in groups and embracing a Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA) which will make indigenous leafy vegetables a flourishing business that will be greatly appreciated so soon. DECLARATION OF AUTHORSHIP I Walugembe Sebastiane Registration Number SO8B26/901 declare that I am the author of this paper and that any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed in the paper. I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas or words, either quoted directly or paraphrased. I also certify that this paper was prepared by me specifically for the partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelors of Agricultural Sciences and Entrepreneurship at Uganda Christian University, Mukono. Signed _________________________________________ WALUGEMBE SEBASTIANE Date _________________________________________ This dissertation has been submitted for examination with my approval as the university supervisor Signed _________________________________________ DR MICHAEL MASANZA Date_________________________________________ DEDICATION This dissertation is hereby dedicated to the Lord God my rock and refuge, my mother, Mrs.Nanyondo Bena, my dear sponsor Annie P.Perkins and Compassion International, my special home Tulina Omubeezi,Brother Jackson Mugabe ,Ssalongo Kiwanuka, ,brothers Tonny and Charles, sisters Ruth, Mary, Grace and Lillian, my teachers and lecturers, Prince Iguru Gilbert,Stella,Ambrose, Arafat and Elvis, my inspiration and friend,Uncle steven Lumonya and family ,all my friends in Uganda and the rest of the world, and to my friends and ministers in Chapel choir, Leadership development Program, Arise For Africa, May the Lord bless you mightily. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Am graced to extend gratitude for the generous contribution of HORT-CRSP for equipping me with the expertise and professional training which made this work possible as you gave me the exposure to the community and built my skills. This dissertation would have been impossible to prepare without the help of a number of people. I am deeply indebted to my supervisor, Dr. Michael Masanza (Uganda Christian University) and Mr. Abraham Salomon (HORT-CRSP) and Professor Kate Scow for the parental advice that you gave to us when you came to Uganda. Also my friends Ashton, Taryn and Zaria and Mr&Mrs.Abernathy for encouraging me that we shall make it. Also to Ssalongo Kiwanuka of Masaka, thank you always sir. I am grateful for the generous contribution of Compassion International for supporting me up to this time to make the dream a reality. I would not have achieved this much without the enduring support from my friends and course mates in BASE 4 (UCU) Prayer family (Morning glory) my brothers and, Sister Ruth for giving me a shoulder to lean on and all the support. Also I love to appreciate Mr.Bwogi Ignatius of Rural Agency for Sustainable Development (RASD) Buikwe and family for receiving me as family member and my course mates whose constructive criticism, continuous encouragement support and hard work helped me work hard. I can hardly appreciate enough..   TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i DECLARATION OF AUTHORSHIP ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES viii LIST OF FIGURES ix LIST OF APPENDICES ix LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS x CHAPTER ONE 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background to the study. 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem 2 1.3 Purpose 2 1.4 General objective 2 1.5 Specific objectives 2 1.6 Research Questions 2 1.7 Area Scope of the Study 3 1.8 Time scope 3 1.9 Justification 3 1.10 Significance 4 CHAPTER TWO 5 2 LITERATURE REVIEW. 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Indigenous vegetables commonly marketed 6 2.3 Gender issues and participation in leafy vegetable marketing 7 2.4 Importance of indigenous leafy vegetables 8 2.5 Constraints to leafy vegetable Marketing faced by producers (farmers) 8 CHAPTER THREE 11 3 METHODOLOGY 11 3.1 Study design 11 3.2 Type of research 12 3.3 Area of study 12 3.4 Information sources 13 3.5 Population and sampling techniques 13 3.6 Variables and indicators 13 3.7 Measurement levels 14 3.8 Data collection instruments 14 3.9 Quality 15 3.10 Validity of data 15 3.11 Strategy for data processing and analysis 15 3.12 Methodological constraints 16 3.13 ESTIMATED BUDGET 17 3.14 TIMELINE 17 CHAPTER FOUR 18 4 FINDINGS, INTERPRETATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS 18 4.1 Introduction 18 4.1.1 Sex of the respondents 18 4.1.2 Level of education of the Respondents. 19 4.1.3 Indigenous Leafy Vegetables grown in the area 21 4.1.4 Indigenous Leafy Vegetables marketed in the area 22 4.1.5 Contribution of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables to the family income 23 4.1.6: Season of most sales 25 4.1.7 Major customers of the Indigenous Leafy Vegetables in the study area 27 27 4.1.9: Classification of Farmers in the Study Area 29 4.1.10 Major constraints to the Marketing of Indigenous Leafy Vegetable Marketing 31 CHAPTER FIVE 33 5 CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND AREAS FOR FURTHER STUDY 33 5.1 Introduction 33 5.2 Recommendations 33 5.3 Conclusions 35 5.4 Limitations of the study 35 APPENDICES 38 5.4.1 Appendix 1: University introduction letter 38 5.4.2 Appendix 2 Semi-structured questionnaire 39 5.4.3 Appendix 3: interview guide for key informants discussions 42 5.4.4 Appendix 4: some photos of farmers involved in indigenous leafy vegetable marketing. 43 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Budget Estimates 17 Table 2: Time frame for accomplishing Different tasks 17 Table 3: Sex of the respondents 18 Table 4: Level of education 19 Table 5: Indigenous Leafy Vegetables grown 21 Table 6: What Indigenous Leafy Vegetables are marketed in the area? 22 Table 8: Contribution of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables to the family income 23 Table 9: Season of most sales 25 Table 10: Major customers of the Indigenous Leafy Vegetables in the study area………..…27 Table 11: Acreage for Marketing of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables 28 Table 12: Classification of Farmers in the Study Area 29 Table 13: Major constraints to the Marketing of Indigenous Leafy Vegetable Marketing 31 LIST OF FIGURES Figure1: A Bar Graph showing the respondent’s level of Education in Percentages………...20 Figure 2: A Bar Graph showing the contribution of Leafy Vegetables in Percentages………24 Figure 3: A Bar Graph showing the Season of sales in Percentages…………………………26 Figure 4: A Bar Graph showing the farmer categories in the study area in Percentages……30 LIST OF APPENDICES 5.4.1Appendix 1: University introduction letter 38 5.4.2Appendix 2 Semi-structured questionnaire 39 5.4.3Appendix 3: interview guide for key informants discussions 42 5.4.4Appendix 4: some photos of farmers involved in indigenous leafy vegetable marketing. 43 LIST OF ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS I.L.V ………Indigenous Leafy Vegetables FFS ………Farmers Field School PMCA ………Participatory Chain Marketing Approach AESA …… Agro Eco System Analysis SWOT…… Strengths,Weaknesses,Opportunities and Threats IPM……… Integrated Pest Management FG……… Farmer Group KI……… Key Informant RASD ………Rural Agency for Sustainable Development SPSS……… Statistical Package for Social Scientists SRS……… Simple Random Sampling UCU ………Uganda Christian University FAO ………Food and Agricultural Organization Spp ………Species BASE ………Bachelor of Agricultural Sciences and Entrepreneurship HORT CRSP. Horticulture Collaborative Support Project   CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the introduction about indigenous leafy vegetables and marketing, the background of the study, Statement of the Problem, Purpose, research objectives, questions, and scope of the study, justification and study significance are highlighted. 1.1 Background to the study. Uganda is a country endowed with a warm climate, ample fertile land and regular rainfall, which provides one of the best environments for agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa. Some of the most important crops grown include tea, coffee, cotton, horticulture, cereals, root crops, pulses and bananas among others.Uganda is endowed with agro climatic conditions suitable for the cultivation of a wide range of vegetables. Vegetables are a major source of livelihoods for rural and peri-urban communities in Central Uganda They are credited as a major source of various nutrients they have a local competitive advantage over other crops due to short maturity period, low investment capital and smaller acreage, also are highly nutritious and have medicinal value generate higher returns compared to capital investment and can easily be integrated with other crops. Indigenous vegetables (IVs) have a strategic food security role, offering significant opportunities for the poor, particularly women, through farming, processing and trading activities. The vegetables which are currently being produced in Uganda are either sold in the nearest market or are used for home consumption. The kinds of vegetables being grown for marketing on a large scale are usually those which have been introduced more recently from other countries and may be referred to as 'exotic' or 'introduced' kinds of vegetables. Those grown for home consumption are still chiefly the local types of vegetables. In this paper the term 'local vegetables' is used to cover those plants which occur naturally throughout many districts of Uganda and which are used in the diet in a variety of ways. Some of these may be 'indigenous' while others are 'introduced'. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Many indigenous leafy vegetables naturally exist in Uganda and this is a great source of livelihood especially for many households. Surveys in the different villages have indicated that closely every household produces some leafy vegetable. Well as they are diversely produced by different farmers at different scales, the level of marketing is low among the many growers which poses a challenge of discovering why few farmers in Buikwe are involved in marketing of these indigenous leafy vegetables among the many producers. 1.3 Purpose This research was driven by the need to discover why few farmers are involved in indigenous leafy vegetable marketing yet there are many producers of these vegetables in the area. 1.4 General objective The general objective of this study was to find out the major constraints that affect different classes of farmers who are involved in indigenous Leafy Vegetable marketing. 1.5 Specific objectives The specific objectives of this study were: 1. To find out how indigenous leafy vegetable marketing contributes to the family income. 2. To find out the major constraints (hindrances) to marketing of indigenous leafy vegetables that farmers encounter. 1.6 Research Questions i. What is the contribution of marketing leafy vegetables to the family income? ii. Which constraints affect the level of marketing of indigenous leafy vegetables in the area? 1.7 Area Scope of the Study The study was undertaken in three villages in Buikwe district where farmers involved in marketing of indigenous leafy vegetables were asked about the involvement in vegetable marketing. These villages were Kiyoola, Buyira, and Lugala found in and around the major marketing Centre Nkokonjeru. Nkokonjeru is a town in Buikwe district, Central Uganda. The town is a municipality under Administration. They constituted a sample for the population of farmers involved in indigenous Leafy vegetable marketing, for convenience purpose with regard to space, time and limited financial resources, the results are anticipated to be representative and can be generalized due to the fact that surveys have readily shown that few farmers are involved in their marketing, using a random and purposive sampling, the results obtained from the respondents in the different villages sampled will give a representative picture of the general activity of indigenous Leafy vegetable marketing in Buikwe district. 1.8 Time scope The study which was carried out in March and was intended at finding out the timing when activities relating to indigenous leafy vegetables are carried out by the farmers and the level of marketing by those who are involved, to give an in-depth understanding of the associated constraints in comparison to other crops that are marketed in the study area. 1.9 Justification Surveys have previously shown that few farmers in the area market indigenous leafy vegetables. This therefore prompted the researcher to undertake this study to determine the constraints to indigenous leafy vegetable marketing by farmers in the three selected villages that are part of Buikwe district. 1.10 Significance I. Understanding why farmers do not sell these indigenous leafy vegetables will enable policy makers and extension organizations to target interventions that promote healthier food systems in which indigenous leafy vegetables play a larger role. II. The findings of the research will serve as basic information that will enable small scale farmers and other stakeholders in the agricultural sector to address the challenges encountered in indigenous leafy vegetable marketing. III. The study will encourage a participatory market chain approach which shall enable the different stakeholders in the indigenous leafy vegetable marketing to coordinate the sustainability of the process IV. It will enable the researcher to attain a bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Sciences and Entrepreneurship. CHAPTER TWO 2 LITERATURE REVIEW. This chapter provides for a background study to indigenous leafy vegetables, highlights those that are commonly marketed in Uganda according to the literature, gender issues and participation in indigenous leafy vegetable marketing, the importance of indigenous leafy vegetables and the major constraints faced by farmers. 2.1 Introduction The growing domestic demand for high-quality olericultural goods in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade, driven by rapid urbanization and the rise in supermarkets, offers opportunities to smallholder farmers to generate more income (McCullough et al., 2008). Weinberger (2011) estimated that about 37,000 persons in Uganda participate in vegetable value chain. However, access to these markets is still notoriously difficult for many smallholder farmers thus need to enhance market access of indigenous leafy vegetables. A wide range of indigenous vegetables are consumed in Malawi. These contribute greatly to the nutritional well-being of rural people by providing the essential nutrients required for body growth and development and for prevention of diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies, such as blindness due to vitamin A deficiency. Rural families traditionally have made conscious efforts to preserve these plants around their homesteads, in crop fields and communal lands. In recent years, however, exotic vegetables have taken prominence over indigenous vegetables, in spite of their generally lower nutritive value. The availability of indigenous vegetables has declined drastically because of excessive cultivation of field crops and habitat change, including deforestation. This has been exacerbated by a lack of major research and extension efforts to improve their husbandry and promote these species. Thus, the plants must be gathered at increasing distances from human dwellings, and rural women spend more valuable time in search of them. There is also growing ignorance among young people about the existence of nutritionally rich food plants. Traditional or local vegetables include many species which are wild, semi-cultivated or are protected in some way. They may also include species mainly cultivated for their pods, fruits, roots or tubers, but whose leaves are sometimes consumed as a vegetable. The majority of rural people in Zambia rely on traditional vegetables for their relish. In a rural survey, it was found that traditional vegetables were used by 52-95% of the respondents (Ogle et al. 1990). The diversity in traditional vegetables offers variety in family diet and helps ensure household food security. More than 175 different species have been documented as local vegetables in Zambia (Johansson 1989; Ogle et al. 1990). Among the more prominent species are Amaranthus spp., Cleome spp., Corchorus spp., Disa satiria, Solanum aethiopicum/macrocarpon. Apart from the major species, there are a large number of 'minor' vegetables known by fewer households and used less frequently. 2.2 Indigenous vegetables commonly marketed Nakati (Solanum aethiopicum) is one of the numerous local vegetables in Uganda (Goode, 1989; Musana and Rubaihayo, 2001). Both rural and peril-urban farmers are involved in its production (Bukenya-Ziraba, 1997; Schippers, 1997). However, commercial production of these vegetables is restricted mainly to peri-urban areas (Ssekabembe et al., 2002b). Commercial exploitation of local vegetables is still very limited in Uganda (Rubaihayo, 1996; Schippers and Budd, 1997), and this is partly attributed to neglected research input into local vegetables production. The nutritive value (Goode, 1989; Rubaihayo, 1994, 1996), food security value (Goode, 1989; Rubaihayo, 1994) and commercial importance of Nakati makes research on this crop worthwhile. Actually, in parts of the Nakati production belt of central Uganda, Nakati and Bbugga (Amaranthus lividus) are more important for cash than coffee, which is the most important export crop for Uganda (Ssekabembe et al., 2002a). 2.3 Gender issues and participation in leafy vegetable marketing Both men (husbands) and women (wives) appear to be involved, to some degree, in Nakati production in central Uganda. Family-based farms are usually characterized by division of labour, not only in terms of agricultural enterprises but also with respect to specific tasks (Deere, 1999). Generally, in all societies, men and women often play different roles, have different needs and expectations. The tasks are socially and culturally constructed to address the different production constraints in crop production (Fong and Bhushan, 1996; Najjingo-Mangheni and Karuhanga-Beraho, 2003). In developing countries, women contribute up to 75% of the total agricultural labour force and provide up to 60 - 80% of the food production for both household consumption and for sale ((FAO, 1995, 2000; Mpuga, 2005). Men often seek women’s labour for cash crops production. Women often make up for labour shortfalls in food crops production as men have migrated to towns in search of off-farm income, and as increasing numbers of children attend school (Blumberg, 1992). Such gender-disaggregated data is usually needed to help technicians, planners and policy makers to identify the role differences in food and cash crops production as well as men’s and women’s different managerial and financial control over the production, storage and marketing of agricultural products (FAO, 2000). Unfortunately, gender roles are often not well spelt out or dully recognized. Therefore, the unique features of division of labour and resources by sex in African farming have until recently, been poorly understood (Blumberg, 1992). Therefore, the present addresses this problem in the case of Nakati production, and marketing which is labour intensive, in central Uganda. 2.4 Importance of indigenous leafy vegetables Leaves are a source of protein and vitamins A and C. They are also rich in the minerals calcium, potassium and iron. Amaranthus for example is an easy crop to propagate as it has the capacity to produce abundant seed. They are readily available vegetables in the rainy season, when exotic vegetables become scarce. They are widely sold in urban markets, and thus generate income with minimal inputs. It is consumed throughout eastern Africa (FAO 1988). They have a local competitive advantage over other crops due to; Short maturity period Low investment capital and smaller acreage High nutritious and medicinal value Higher returns compared to capital investment Can easily be integrated with other crops. 2.5 Constraints to leafy vegetable Marketing faced by producers (farmers) Financial constraints – Financial constraints that manifest themselves in form of; inadequate financial resources for investment, too high interest rates on borrowed funds, unfavorable terms of borrowing usually a grace period of one month. Most farmers depend on own savings, family or personal friends to engage in their faming activities. When borrowing is done under prevailing terms provided (loan repayment period of 6 months and grace period of 1 month) by commercial banks and micro-finance institutions. Limited participation of farmers in the marketing chain: Transactions are dominated by spot markets, lack of trust and opportunism, with very few contracts or long-term business relationships. This situation breeds speculation and opportunism, leading to distortions and loss of interest on the part of the producers. Lack of information on market requirements: quality, volumes, prices and location has resulted in quality ignorance among the farmers and sometimes sustained an attitude of ‘impatience’ or hasty sales reducing the quality of farm gate produce put on the market and ultimately their incomes. The main sources of information for the farmers were the middle men. Limited skills and knowledge of improved agricultural technologies: These result in a slow rate of technology adoption, high post harvest losses, poor quality products and generally low production levels. The poor harvesting practices are attributed to ignorance and sometimes “greed for money’ that reduces the quality of output which reduces the price bargaining power of farmers and ultimately their incomes. Agricultural extension services are not readily accessible to the farmers. Lack of organized and strong farmer groups: organized and strong farmer groups are important for farmers to negotiate in the market. Farmers remain price takers as traders determine prices through deliberate distortion of market information. Inefficient and costly transport systems: Roads at all levels in production areas impassable leading to isolation of farmers in the rural areas. Modern transport methods do no work in these rural areas making accessibility to markets impossible. Limited reliable and knowledgeable rural input suppliers for genuine inputs: There are few in put suppliers in the rural and even the few sometimes sale fake seeds, fertilizers and acaricides which affects farmers production levels, quality and hence incomes. Input suppliers are not controlled and they sell everything they want. Though a lot of research has steadily been done on vegetables by several research organizations, it has greatly focused much on market research for other forms of vegetables leaving indigenous leafy vegetables that are highly important for the general household economic contribution, this research therefore seeks to identify how much competitive leafy indigenous leafy vegetables can be utilized in the market. Farmer classification and categorization Farmers were broadly divided into three classes, commercial scale, subsistence and those who did not sell; they are characterized by different factors. CHAPTER THREE 3 METHODOLOGY In this chapter, the study design, type of research, study area, information sources, population and sampling techniques, data collection instruments, quality and validity of data, data processing and analysis, anticipated methodological constraints, budget and timeline are detailed. 3.1 Study design Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected in this study by the researcher, survey methods such as use of questionnaires were employed for capturing of quantitative data and also non survey methods particularly qualitative data was obtained through key informant interview discussions constituting of lead farmers involved in indigenous leafy vegetable marketing within the three different villages in Buikwe that is Buyira, Kiyoola and Lugala. Respondents were randomly identified. The researcher introduced himself and bore a letter from the University; Local leaders were of help in mobilization and reaching the respondents who would be interviewed. Data was collected from farmers who are involved in production and marketing of indigenous leafy vegetables, individuals and those in groups who provided information relating to the questions and problem of study. Key informants who definitely were famers’ facilitators and lead farmers were consulted. Vegetable farmers from Kiyoola, Lugala and Buyira anticipated to give a general picture of the constraints to indigenous leafy vegetable marketing farmers in Buikwe district. These were identified and randomly selected for interviews to avoid getting biased results. A total of 43 farmers were interviewed face to face in all these villages. Due to time and financial resources limitations key informant interview guides and questionnaires were administered. An explanatory study relating to characteristics such as age, sex, and level of education were taken in the survey in the short time frame so as to explain the findings. The study was aimed at establishing the relationship between the causal variable (constraints) also termed as the ‘independent variable’ against the level of marketing (outcome variable). The control variables were age, gender and level of education (social demographic characteristics which helped to obtain a statistical interpretation of the results This made it possible to identify the most commonly occurring constraints that farmers in the study area encounter. 3.2 Type of research A Mixed research was undertaken where both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used in the collection and analysis of data for the research paradigms. Therefore survey and non-survey methods were used. These included Qualitative (Non-survey) methods like key informant interviews, survey (Quantitative) methods used include use of questionnaires. 3.3 Area of study Buikwe District is bordered by Kayunga District to the north, Jinja District to the east, Buvuma to the southeast, the Republic of Tanzania to the south. The district headquarters at Buikwe are located approximately 60 kilometres (37 miles), by road, east of Kampala, the capital of Uganda and the country's largest city. This location is approximately 14 kilometres (8.7 miles), by road, southeast of Lugazi, the nearest large town. Buikwe district was created by Act of Parliament and it commenced operations on 1 July 2009. Prior to that, it was part of Mukono district. The national census in 2002 estimated the population of Buikwe district at approximately 329,900. This district is widely involved in agricultural activities and 65% of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. The indigenous leafy vegetables diversely exist, locally produced and substantially marketed in the area. Lugala, Kiyoola and Buyira villages which have according to different studies and situation analyses shown that there are farmers engaged in indigenous leafy vegetable production and marketing. 3.4 Information sources The tools employed to collect qualitative data for gathering information included: Semi structured interviews using distinctive qualitative methods like key informant discussions. Questionnaires for the survey research to capture quantitative data were also used. 3.5 Population and sampling techniques Simple random sampling and purposive sampling of indigenous leafy vegetable farmers and facilitators involved in marketing in the three selected different villages in Buikwe district was done. A total of 43 farmers who offered information that is anticipated to be representative through face to face interviews and 7 key informants who responded to the qualitative questions by purposive sampling were interviewed. 3.6 Variables and indicators A scale of variables for rating the different farmer categorizations was the constraints that have been recorded from the literature review as Independent Variables to know their level of importance to this research, and the dependent variables were indigenous leafy vegetable marketing and classification of the farmers involved. Results were represented statistically to enable capture of both qualitative and quantitative data through percentile scoring and the indicators were the amount of the leafy indigenous vegetables they market and periods of times (months) and seasons and how often they carry out the marketing as captured in the questionnaires. 3.7 Measurement levels Farmers involved in marketing of indigenous leafy vegetables were broadly categorized into three classes so that their involvement would be tracked basing on their acreage and marketing. These were small scale, subsistence and those who did not sell. 3.8 Data collection instruments The researcher used the following instruments to collect data; a) Interview guides These were used to collect primary data and responses needed in the study from key informant discussions to collect qualitative data with respect to the research questions and the responses were recorded in the researchers note book for giving qualitative interpretation of the findings. b) Document Review This included reviewing the existing literature; the researcher collected, analyzed, and contrasted different views from different authors while focusing on getting theories and empirical findings as to why smallholders would or would not market vegetables) Questionnaires, Questionnaires were designed and used to ask different respondents in the different villages to find out those involved in marketing and classes where they fall with respect to the variable of farmer classification (Appendix 2). A total of 43 questionnaires were used where farmers in the three different villages were asked open-ended questions and responses recorded and statistically analysed, the control variables were age, and gender of the respondents while the independent variables were the constraints whose level of significance were recorded basing on the farmers’ responses with respect to indigenous leafy vegetable marketing. 3.9 Quality Questionnaires used in this study were pretested before they were administered. This was done in Bukasa; the aim was to bring the questions with clarity to the farmers. The questionnaires helped the researcher to collect information in the shortest time possible since they were elaborate. The researcher drew a simple random sample that represented the several individuals to whom the research applied basing on the findings from the situation analyses that offered information which was critically analysed. This minimized error. 3.10 Validity of data Pretesting and making of the pilot study in Bukasa made the questions more easily understandable to the respondents and the random sampling generated results that can be generalized and applicable to the entire study, because would be too expensive to make travels and facilitate the activity if the actual areas were used for the testing. Therefore the pretesting was done in Bukasa, an area which has the same characteristics as the study area in Buikwe. 3.11 Strategy for data processing an


  1. Sometimes life seems hard to bear,
    Full of sorrow, trouble, and woe.
    It's then I have to remember,
    That it's in the valleys I grow.
    If I always stayed on the mountain top
    And never experienced pain,
    I would never appreciate God's love
    And would be living in vain.
    I have so much to learn
    And my growth is very slow,
    Sometimes I need the mountain tops,
    But it's in the valleys I grow.
    I do not always understand
    Why things happen as they do,
    But I am very sure of one thing.
    My Lord will see me through.
    My little valleys are nothing
    When I picture Christ on the cross.
    He went through the valley of death;
    His victory was Satan's loss.
    Forgive me Lord, for complaining
    When I'm feeling so very low.
    Just give me a gentle reminder
    That it's in the valleys I grow.

  2. Farming God’s Way Uganda February 2009
    I have been so privileged to have taught Farming God's Way in so many different countries, with such
    astounding in field experiences.
    This Ugandan time is certainly way up there in terms of radical experience & has several WOW
    factors that make this trip report a worthwhile read.
    In just a few excerpts from a long prophecy the Lord gave a
    week before the time I felt God say:
    “They shall run like no nation has run before and be like a
    sign of the wild fire at night, fueled by the dry timber & my
    breath.”…”I long to see this nation which designed for
    splendour to begin to show the fruit for which it should be
    Uganda would call themselves 85% Christian & yet the
    people are still steeped in ancestral worship & witchcraft
    which is such a common trend in Africa. The average yield
    in the nation is 400kg per acre & that with spectacular soils
    & two rainy seasons and an average of over 1000mm in 75%
    of the land. The yield potential is around 6-8 tons per acre,
    so it certainly is a land of great promise and when God
    created the “pearl of Africa” (so named by Sir Winston
    Churchill) he had a wonderful vision in mind.
    I have had much correspondence from Uganda over the past
    5 years and Louwrens Boshoff has trained Farming God's
    Way previously in Uganda already. I visited the country in
    2008 for different reasons but felt God strongly impressing
    on my heart that we should be going in to the country prior to their long rains beginning March/April.
    In October 2008, when I was in a time of getting the plans into motion I felt God clearly say don’t go
    on your own but take a strong team of trainers in with you and have a “prophetic” national thrust or
    launch of Farming God's Way in Uganda.
    It turned out to be just that!!!
    Many invitations to the senior
    trainers went out & we ended up with
    4 volunteers, these being Carl
    Schmidt, Louwrens Boshoff,
    Wilhelm Els & myself (Grant
    Although I was stuck with three
    Afrikaaners for the 10 days I
    managed to put up with their
    nonsense ☺
    All of them sowed of their own time
    & finances to get there & what an
    amazing effort they put in.

  3. Uganda Christian University (UCU) is a private, not-for-profit University that is chartered (accredited) by the Government of Uganda.

    Our main campus is in Mukono, 25 kilometres (15 miles) from the capital city of Kampala, Uganda. A constituent college, Bishop Barham University College, is located in Kabale (south western Uganda) and regional campuses are located in three other locations nationwide.

    Over 11,000 students study across five campuses nationwide; over 8000 of them study at the main campus in Mukono. They study in any of the approximately 60 programmes leading to diplomas, bachelors, masters, and doctorates. These are offered through our schools and faculties.

    UCU provides "a complete education for a complete person." What does this mean? Few universities in the region emphasize a holistic education. You will benefit with from an education that integrates physical, social, emotional, and spiritual growth with traditional academics.

    For example, all student will take the "foundation studies" courses in ethics, world views, mathematics, research and writing, health and wholeness, basic computing, and theology.

    The University’s goal in teaching is to facilitate learning, not simply to help students pass exams. To accomplish this, UCU’s education philosophy limits the number of courses a student can take in a semester to promote depth of study. Practical experience are required in many programmes.

    On the sports scene, UCU boasts nationally ranked teams including men's and women's basketball, football, and volleyball. Students can participate in the over 60 active clubs on campus, many of which perform in community service outside the University.

    Campus life programs also lead in Uganda, with all first year students required to stay in supervised housing. UCU launched Uganda's first Resident Assistant Program to mentor young students. Under this program, approved and trained mature students help mentor and guide younger peers.

    On the spiritual side, the Chaplaincy provides regular worship and fellowship opportunities and week-long conferences each semester. Counselling services are also available to all in the UCU community. The University Counselling department trains both students and staff to be peer counsellors in the community.

    Outreach programmes benefit communities

    The Mother Friendly Hospitals Initiative of the Save the Mothers programme which helps hospitals reduce maternal mortality. The initiative encourages hospitals and medical staff to provide better and user friendly services to mothers and children. This in turn is to encourage more mothers (or expectant mothers) to visit hospitals and get better health care.

    The Oil and Gas Leadership Institute (OGLI) which equips leaders about the business, legal, social and environmental impact of recent oil discoveries.

    The Mission for Civic Awareness and Health (MICAH) is a student initiative that, since 2006, has helped thousands of households improve health and sanitation across three districts.

  4. Support to Business Development Services


    According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2004, over one in three adult Ugandans is engaged in some form of entrepreneurial activity, resulting in Uganda being the second most entrepreneurial country in the world. However, the study also showed that the rate of failure of businesses in Uganda was also one of the highest in the world, citing that for every business that was started nearly one other closed. Mostly, these are micro and small enterprises (MSEs).

    The major causes of failure are a lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of access to affordable business development services, limited access to finance, lack of adequate technical and management support services, limited access to information on market opportunities and limited access to financing - as well as the high cost of financing.

    The projects, based at the district but with a coverage of 4 to 5 surrounding districts each, identify micro and small enterprises in their various regions of operations, provide business development services (BDS) and aim at strengthening the capacity of the MSEs in order to improve their competitiveness and income generation capacities. The projects also enhance the MSEs’ operational efficiency, assist development of market linkages and facilitate the MSEs to access credit from microfinance institutions (MFIs) in order to enhance employment creation, competitiveness and income generation.

    Development objectives

    The objective of the projects is to enhance the performance of MSEs through the improvement of operational efficiency, strengthening of market linkages, and facilitation of MSEs to access financing in order to enhance employment creation, competitiveness and income generation.

    Key activities & expected results

    The projects aim at delivering BDS to 1300 MSEs per annum for two years. The project selects or works with a number of SMEs which receive enterprise development skills and BDS, such as marketing, packaging, quality control, business proposal writing and many others. Those whose capacities are built are then linked to sustainable market chains and linked to MFIs to access credit. These businesses can then expand and prosper.

    Implementation phase

    The four projects running for two years have registered successes in their work with the MSEs.

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